Drug abuse is one of the most pervasive social problems in the world. It is a behaviour that most societies view as” being detrimental to people’s physical, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. Hewitt and Enoch (2009) define drug use/substance abuse as an excessive use of addictive substances, especially when such consumption or misuse of a substance is not for therapeutic-purposes but rather for the purpose of altering the normal functioning of the mind and body.
Substance abuse among various populations and in virtually every country of the world is assuming an increasingly alarming dimension, a tendency which, if left unchecked, could spell disasters of an unimaginable proportion (WHO 2010). At the individual level, substance abuse has been implicated in many forms of human morbidity and mortality, and is a leading cause of preventable deaths in many countries of the world (Agrawal, Puliyel, Chansoria, Mukerejee & Kaul,2007; Yoon, Higgins & Heil, 2007). Substance abuse is a major cause of physical conditions such as liver, cardiovascular, and cranial problems. Other problems include some. degree of tolerance and withdrawal syndrome, characterized by nervousness, irritability, drowsiness, energy loss, difficulty concentrating, impaired physical performance, headaches, fatigues, irregular bowels, insomnia, dizziness, cramps, palpitation, tremors, and cravings (Seaman & Seeman 1983).
Additionally, substance abuse has been implicated in majority of the cases of vehicular fatalities worldwide, with attendant effects of physical deformity, loss of property, loss of jobs, loss of esteem and even loss of lives. In addition, substance misuse is known to have a causal relationship with many psychological disorders including mental and behavioural disorders (Abiona, Aioba, & Fatoye, 2006). Substance abuse is a leading cause of violence among individuals and is a major cause of premature deaths (Agrawal et al. 2007; Ogden 2003, Patton 1998).