Chapter 19: Transnational alcohol industries, alcohol marketing and the drinking behaviours of Nigerian youths: Implications lot policies by Emeka W. Dumbili
Internationally, research shows that students engage in heavy drinking rituals (Andrade et al., 2012; Kypri et al., 2005), and suffer diverse alcohol-related problems (lwamoto at al., 2011; O’Brien et al., 2013). Growing evidence suggests that one of the reasons why aicohol consumption is high amongst students is due to the prevalent marketing outlets, advertising, sales promotions and sponsorship of social events on campuses (Paek & Hove, 2012; Scribner et al.. 2008). Scholars (e.g., O’Brien et al., 2014; Ruddock, 2012) argue that these strategies facilitate the physical, economic and psychological availability of alcohol on campuses. Indeed, multinational alcohol corporations use sophisticated marketing tactics such as rebranding of glassware (Stead et al., 2014), price promotions (Babor et al., 2010; Gordon et al., 2010; Hastings et al., 2005). giveaway alcohol-branded merchandise (Anderson et al., 2009; Hurtz et al., 2007), etc., to encourage young people (students and non-students) to initiate alcohol consumption or to use larger quantities.
In Australia, a large body of literature (e.g., Pettigrew et al., 2015; Jones et al., 2012; Jones & Lynch, 2007) reveals the ubiquity of promotional activities that target youths.These include point-of-sale promotions that offer free alcohol or price discounts and another where cash and other prizes are won (Jones & Lynch, 2007;
Jones et al., 2012). As Jones & Lynch (2007) argue, some of these promotions are designed specifically to encourage students to patronise sales outlets and/or to consume more alcohol. On the impact of sales promotion, evidence shows that those who participated in promotional activities bought and consumed larger quantities of alcohol than those who did not participate (Jones et al., 2015). This is why Jones & Lynch (2007, p.478)argued that sales promotion engenders “a culture in which excessive alcohol consumption is seen as a norm”.