Chapter 1: General characteristics and alcohol concentration of some brands of beer brewed and bottled in Nigerian L. A. D. Duru & V. O. Nwabisi

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Introduction
Beer is a generic name for alcohol beverages made by fermentation of extracts derived from cereal grains and/or other starchy materials. In most parts of the world, the beverage is known by various names. In Europe ,it is called ale, in Benue State and some northern states of Nigeria it is called burukutu, piro in Edo State, otika in Yoruba and Kaffir beer in South Africa.
There are two standard processes in beer production – the malting process and the brewing process.The main ingredient in beer brewing is the malt derived from barley in a process known as malting. In Nigeria, Sorghurn or maize has been used with success. Analysis of beer covers every aspect of beer production, and the analysis at each step acts as quality control measure to ensure consistency in production.The techniques and methods of analysis have been reviewed. Some standards of beer analysis have been approved by scientific associations. These include the Association of Analytical Chemist: (AOAC), American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC), European Brewing Convention (EBC),and Institute of Brewing Analysis Committee(IBAC), etc. Analysis of beer is employed in the detection of poisoning in beer,e.g., metals like lead, iron, copper, zinc, and arsenic.

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