Chapter 3: Analysis of factors contributing to relapse in addiction treatment: A case study of centre for addiction treatment and research, Vom Christian Hospital Jos by Nevin Terry Haa


The term relapse refers to the return to substance use, following a period of voluntary or enforced abstinence, at a level of intensity comparable to that attained before abstinence (Babor, Cooney 81 Lauerman, 1986). it may mean resumption of addiction; return to drug use of the same intensity as in the past; daily drug use for a specified number of sequential days (e.g., daily use for 1 week); or a consequence of the drug use, such as the return to the hospital for further drug abuse treatment lLitman, Stapleton, Oppenheim, Peleg & Jackson, 1983). Other authors have described relapse as complex, dynamic and unpredictable (Buhringer, 2000; Donovan, 1996; Marlatt, 1996). Whereas according to Mahmood (1996).
relapsed addiction means, usage, intake or misuse of psychoactive substances after one had received drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation, physically and
The factors that contribute to relapse are into two broad categories: immediate determinants and covert antecedents. Immediate determinants are the environmental and emotional situations that are associated with relapse, including
high-risk situations that threaten an individual’s sense of control, coping strategies. and outcome expectancies. Covert antecedents, which are less obvious factors influencing relapse, include lifestyle factors such as stress level and balance, and urges and cravings (Larimer, Palmer & Marlatt, 1999; Kadden, 2002). In simple terms. they are referred to as internaland external triggers the former which has to do with ones state of emotions and feelings while the later has to do with
environment example situations, places and people. To Rasmussen (2000), relapse occurred because of the building up of additional crisis such as to look trivially on certain problem. stress, weak or failed forecast, the pessimistic thinking that all issue cannot be resolved and immature actions.